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Competence Centre on Foresight

We foster a strategic, future-oriented and anticipatory culture in the EU policymaking process.

Page | Last updated: 10 Dec 2019


  • International trade can alter the composition of labour demand by increasing the demand for high-skill workers and by causing reallocation of employment from middle to top occupations, notes OECD.
  • Trade with non-EU countries has led to the creation of millions of jobs in Europe. In 2017, the European Commission estimated that about 36 million jobs are linked to trade with non-EU countries. Being in the same single market has also led to more trade between EU countries.
  • However, globalization might also be linked to some job losses. Nevertheless, the rate of job losses due to offshoring has decreased from 7% in the 2003-2007 period to 4% in the 2008-2010 period and continued to decline to under 3% in 2015-2016, notes the ERM annual report 2016.

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