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Knowledge Service

Knowledge Centre for Global Food and Nutrition Security

We support the EU global commitment to end hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition through a dedicated, reinforced science-policy interface and a fostered inter-policy dialogue.


Social Sustainability

The social sustainability of the cocoa sector should be assessed against the capacity of operators in the value-chain to implement Responsible Business Conduct and eliminate child labour.

Global Food and Nutrition Security

The International Cocoa Initiative (ICI)

ICI is a Swiss-based, non-profit foundation that works to ensure a better future for children in cocoa-growing communities. It is a multi-stakeholder partnership advancing the elimination of child labour and forced labour, by uniting the forces of the cocoa and chocolate industry, civil society, farming communities, governments, international organizations and donors.

Responsible Business Conduct (RBC) in Agriculture

This FAO online resources focuses on Responsible Business Conduct (RBC) in agriculture and details the initiatives, strategies and tools to help foster inclusive development for governments while working interactively with business, NGOs and others.

The Dark Side of Chocolate

This report from BASIC (Bureau d’Analyse Sociétale pour une Information Citoyenne) explores and quantify the social, health and environmental impacts generated by the cocoa supply chain in Ivory Coast and Peru. The related hidden costs which are not integrated by the market but rather offset on society are then compared with the export value of cocoa in the two countries. Different supply chains are analysed and compared: conventional, sustainable and fair trade. The report shows that in Ivory Coast, the negative impacts of the cocoa production amount to almost 80% of the export value of cocoa in the conventional supply chain. Fair trade does reduce this share at about 60% but does not eliminate the costs on society posed by cocoa. In this country, the most important source of negative impacts are poverty of producers and deforestation. In Peru, the hidden costs are already much lower (about 37% of export price) in the conventional supply chain while in the Fair Trade supply chain they are as low as 6% of the export value of cocoa beans.

Gender Perspectives on Cocoa Production in Ecuador and Peru: Insights for Inclusive and Sustainable Intensification

This publication analyses that despite women’s interest and involvement in cocoa production, traditional gender roles limit their participation in cooperatives, inclusion in training, access to agronomic and market information, and involvement in decision making regarding production and sales

Benchmarking self-declared social sustainability initiatives in cocoa sourcing

This paper critically examines the self-declared sustainability initiatives of the world’s four largest chocolate manufacturers (Ferrero, Mars, Mondelez and Nestlé) and the measures they take to tackle social problems within the context of establishing sustainable sourcing of cocoa in Ghana and the Ivory Coast.

Qui sont les planteurs de cacao de Côte d'Ivoire?

The objective of this Research Paper is to rethink some concepts and ideas concerning the ageing of farmers and plantations in the whole country, and above all to explain the changing characteristics of farmers and their plantations, related to their environment over the last 20 years.