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Food-Based Dietary Guidelines in Europe - table 9

Summary of FBDG recommendations for fish for the EU, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland and the United Kingdom

Due care was taken to ensure factually correct information. Food groupings and food group names differ across individual FBDGs; the ones used here are a compromise to present the information in a structured way. Differences such as those in number of portions and portion sizes were kept unaltered. The original country FBDGs and the responsible national public health authorities remain the only qualified points of reference.

Country

Quantitative recommendations

Qualitative recommendations

Portion size

Belgium - Flanders

- Once a week (not more, because of environmental considerations). Alternate type and origin of fish. Always prefer with MSC or ASC labels. -

Notes: Lean fish (≤ 2 g fat / 100 g)
- Light green zone (=preferred choice): fresh fish, canned fish in water
- Grey zone (=no preference): fish with added salt, oil, or mayonnaise; smoked fish products (surimi, canned tuna in oil, mussel in vinegar, fish salad with mayonnaise), breaded fish
- Red zone (=as little as possible): (deep-)fried fish products (calamari, shrimp croquettes)

Semi-fat fish (>2-10 g fat / 100 g)
- Light green zone (=preferred choice): fresh fish, canned fish in water (anchovy, trout, halibut, squid, carp, oyster, turbot, salmon trout, etc)
- Grey zone (=no preference): fish with added salt, oil, or mayonnaise; smoked fish products (canned anchovies in oil, smoked trout, canned pilchard in tomato sauce)
- Red zone (=as little as possible): (deep-)fried or breaded fish products (fried squid)

Oily fish (> 10 g fat / 100 g)
- Light green zone (=preferred choice): fresh fish, canned fish in water (butterfish, gilt-head bream, herring, mackerel, river eel, sardines, salmon)
- Grey zone (=no preference): fish with added salt, oil, or mayonnaise; smoked fish products (smoked salmon / herring / mackerel / halibut, canned caviar, canned mackerel/sardines in oil or in tomato sauce, smoked river eel, salmon salad, etc.)
- Red zone (=as little as possible): fried or breaded fish products

Country

Quantitative recommendations

Qualitative recommendations

Portion size

Belgium - Wallonia

1-2 times/d, alternating between meat, poultry, fish, eggs, pulses, plant-based alternatives. - -
Notes: Included in one group together with meat, poultry, eggs, pulses, and plant alternatives

Bulgaria

Consume fish at least 1-2 times per week. Replace meat and meat products with fish, poultry or pulses. 150-200 g/ serving

Czechia

About 400 g fish per week. Prefer fatty fish. -

Denmark

At least twice a week as the main course and several times a week as a side dish. In total, aim to get 350 g of fish per week, of which about 200 g of fatty fish such as salmon, trout, mackerel, and herring. All kinds of fish count, also frozen fish, canned fish like cod, tuna, and mackerel, as well as seafood like shrimp and mussels. Choose fish products with the Keyhole label. -

Country

Quantitative recommendations

Qualitative recommendations

Portion size

Germany

Fish once or twice a week. Eat weekly 1 portion (80-150 g) low-fat seafish (prepared) AND 1 serving (70 g) of fatty fish (prepared) Choose from recognised sustainable sources. 80-150 g low-fat seafish (prepared) and 70 g of fatty fish (prepared)
Notes: Included in the "animal products" group

Estonia

3-4 portions. Fish, poultry, eggs, meat, and products made from them (1-2 fish & fish products). Fish at least 3x/week. Prefer low- or medium-fat fish (to limit polychlorinated biphenyl intake). Processed fish products: choose with less salt. Fish (cooked): 75 g lean fish, 60 g of medium fat fish, 35 g fatty fish, 30 g of very fatty fish. Fish products: 80 g surimi, 50 g smoked and salted fish, 40 g of canned fish in water, tomato, or natural juice; fish stick, 30 g canned fish in oil; salty herring. 1 port≈80 kcal.

Ireland

Choose fish up to twice a week - oily fish is best. Eat more fish; opt also for oily fish, e.g. mackerel, sardines, and salmon. 100 g cooked fish
Notes: Oily fish provides essential omega-3 fats.

Greece

2-3 servings of fish & seafood per week Consume fish and seafood frequently; choose small fatty fish. At least half of the intake should be fatty fish; consume a variety of fish & seafood. 150 g (cooked)

Country

Quantitative recommendations

Qualitative recommendations

Portion size

Spain

2-4 servings of fish per week. Alternate fatty and lean fish. 125-150 g of fish fillets or 200-250 g of a whole fish.
Notes: In the NAOS Pyramid, fatty and lean fish are important foods and can be combined with others, they are recommended to be eaten several times a week.

France

Fish and seafood 2 times per week, of which one time should be fatty fish. Vary species and locations (especially for large consumers), to limit exposure to contaminants. -

Croatia

At least once per week. Eat more fish. -

Italy

Eat fish 2-3 times per week. - 1 small portion of fish (100 g).
Notes: Included in "Meat, fish, and eggs" group.

Country

Quantitative recommendations

Qualitative recommendations

Portion size

Cyprus

2-3 servings/day meat or equivalent (including fish). 1-2 portions fatty fish per week. Eat more fish, particularly fatty fish (sea bream, red seabream, salmon, swordfish, sea bass, trout). -
Notes: Fish is included in one group together with meat, cheese, legumes, eggs, peanut butter, and tofu.

Latvia

Eat fish at least twice a week. - -

Lithuania

Fish at least twice per week Replace fatty meat and meat products with legumes, fish, poultry or lean meat. Prefer seafish. 100 g
Notes: Included as alternative to meat etc.

Luxembourg

- Alternate between various protein sources and use low-fat modes of preparation (baking, steaming, grilling). Fatty fish are particularly rich in heart-protective omega-3 fatty acids. You can choose from fresh, frozen and canned products. -

Country

Quantitative recommendations

Qualitative recommendations

Portion size

Hungary

At least once a week have sea fish or bighead carp, sterlet, trout on your plate. - 1 slice (150 g) fish

Malta

2 or more servings per week. A serving of oily fish per week is recommended. Choose from a wide variety of fresh and seasonal fish. 115 g (raw)

Netherlands

1-8 yr: 0.5 serving per week
9 yr and older: 1 serving per week
Eat fish once a week, preferably oily fish. 100 g
Notes: Included in protein-rich products.

Austria

1-2 portions/week - 1 Portion = 1 slice of the sice of a handpalm
Notes: Prefer high-fat fish such as mackerel, salmon, tuna and herring or domestic coldwater fish such as char.

Poland

At least 2 times a week Not fried fish, but baked or boiled. -

Country

Quantitative recommendations

Qualitative recommendations

Portion size

Portugal

- Increase the consumption of fish. 30 g of raw fish, 25 g of cooked fish.

Romania

2-3 servings of lean meat (including fish) per day. Eat fish as often as possible. 200 g

Slovenia

3-5 servings of meat, fish or substitutes.  Eat fish 1-2 times a week. At least once a week, include oily marine fish in the menu (source of essential fatty acids). - One serving =  1 pilchard , half a medium-sized trout.

Slovakia

- Preference for saltwater fish (fresh, frozen, deep-frozen). Choose a variety of proteins, which include fish, lower-fat meat and poultry, eggs, beans and peas, soy products and natural seeds and unsalted mixed nuts. -

Finland

Eat fish (of different kinds) two to three times a week. Vary and eat different kinds of fish. 100-150 g fish (cooked weight)

Country

Quantitative recommendations

Qualitative recommendations

Portion size

Sweden

Eat fish and shellfish 2-3 times a week. Vary your intake of fatty and low-fat varieties. -
Notes: Specific recommendations for risk groups to limit fish from Baltic Sea and certain lakes.

United Kingdom

2 portions of sustainably sourced fish per week, one of which is oily. Choose sustainably sourced fish. 140 g
Notes: Included in "Beans, pulses, fish, eggs, meat and other proteins".

Switzerland

1-2 portions per week - 100-120 g (fresh weight)
Notes: Included in one group together with meat, eggs, dairy products, and tofu.

Iceland

Fish 2-3 times a week. Desirable that one of the weekly fish portions is fatty fish, e.g. salmon, trout, herring, halibut, or mackerel. Choose fish products with the Keyhole label if possible. 150 g

Norway

Eat fish 2-3 times a week. 300-450 g of pure fish week. At least 200 g should be fatty fish. - 150 g