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Publication | 6 August 2021

Transformation of agriculture in West Africa: Challenges & opportunities (2030 – 2050 – 2063)

Until mid-2000, most of West African countries saw a period of sustained economic growth, with diverse growth rates. The national GDP growth of Senegal reached 7%/year, Cape Verde 5%, Mali 4.7% and Mauritania 4%, while other countries like Guinea Conakry, The Gambia and Guinea Bissau saw their GDP stagnate or even decline due to political instability and less effective governance. Expressed in 2011 purchasing power parity USD, GDP per capita reached USD 635 / year for Guinea Bissau, USD 870 for Mali, USD 697 for Guinea, USD 1,033 for Senegal, 1,200 USD for Mauritania and 3,800 USD for Cape Verde. Poverty levels are declining, but to varying degrees: poverty rates according to national thresholds are lowest in Mauritania (33%) followed by Cape Verde (36%), while Senegal and Guinea Conakry have the highest rates with 52% and 53% respectively. For all countries, poverty is a more rural phenomenon. Food insecurity, closely linked to poverty and inequality, has also declined and is generally lower than in other parts of SubSaharan Africa.