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Dataset | 27 April 2021

Human Mortality Database

The Human Mortality Database (HMD) contains original calculations of death rates and life tables for national populations (countries or areas); as well as the input data used in constructing those tables. The input data consist of death counts from vital statistics; plus census counts; birth counts; and population estimates from various sources. Life tables are calculated using adjusted harmonised population exposures.

The database is limited by design to populations where death registration and census data are virtually complete; since this type of information is required for the uniform method used to reconstruct historical data series. As a result; the countries and areas included here are relatively wealthy and for the most part highly industrialized.

The main goal of the Human Mortality Database is to document the longevity revolution of the modern era and to facilitate research into its causes and consequences. As much as possible; we have followed four guiding principles in creating this database: comparability; flexibility; accessibility; reproducibility. At present the database contains detailed population and mortality data for 38 countries.


Human Mortality Database. University of California; Berkeley (USA); and Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (Germany). Available at or (data downloaded on [date]).

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